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We are delighted to welcome Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic) to enter our consortium of dedicated PIETE collegues and enthusiasts as an associated partner!

We have been contacted by officials of Technical University of Ostrava already at the end of 2019 leading to first successful talks between representatives of either sides shortly afterwards. The Technical University of Ostrava (VSB-TUO) is a public institution of higher education which provides tertiary education in technical and economic sciences. It has a long tradition in high quality engineering with around 12.000 students and 800 pedagogue and cooperates with educational and research institutions worldwide. In addition and with relevance to PIETE, VSB-TUO is involved in the training and education of children in secondary and elementary schools, and at kindergartens both in the Czech Republic and abroad.

Given VSB-TUO efforts in supporting talented pupils, the PIETE consortium was glad to propose associate partnership to PIETE. VSB-TUO officials have equally expressed their interest to exchange best-practice experiences and intellectual resources to foster entrepreneurial aspirations and efforts of teacher trainers and aspiring teachers (primary target groups of PIETE). The collaboration has been manifested through signed Letter of Support allowing a further strengthening of ties between involved institutions in the months ahead.

Mutual benefits

Given the obvious high potentials to positively contribute to the success of the project, the PIETE consortium is strongly convinced of the mutual benefits that will result from this collaboration. In fact, both sides also decided to intensify talks in the upcoming months to identify further areas of collaboration within the upcoming Erasmus+ application round. Thus, apart from jointly discussing and piloting PIETE project outputs as well as exchange best-practices experiences, the collaboration with VSB-TUO may as well be the impetus to initiate new projects in the field of practical driven school teaching with relevance to entrepreneurship education involving all PIETE partnering institutions soon.

PIETE Awareness Test Center (survey) provides means to assess EE conception of ITE educators, with the end goal of raising their awareness for the added-values of EntreComp for the teaching profession.

The survey will serve as the main data collection instrument for PIETE Discussion Paper. You can already access the survey in 4 languages (English, German, Polisn and Hungarian) online at:

PIETE Awareness Test Center

If you would like to recieve an offline version of the survey in the above-mentioned languages, please contact the leader of the PIETE consortium and this intellectual output – Florian Bratzke at bratzke[at]univations.de

PIETE Initial Teacher Education (ITE) methodological framework allows a coherent mapping of actors, artefacts and practices involved in the pre-service teacher training within education systems. Thus, the framework makes it possible to understand the functionality of Teacher Training Centers (TTCs) in terms of institutional circumstances, curricular focus and responsibilities of educators involved in ISCED 3-4 (Upper secondary education and post-secondary non-tertiary education) teacher development. It helps identifying areas in which elements of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – as understood under the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) – can be most efficiently integrated.
The framework has two dimensions: On the one hand, it explains how Initial Teacher Education (ITE) work from a systemic perspective, on the other hand it asks where Entrepreneurship Education (EE) can be found within this perspective.

This framework aims to be easily applicable to different national or regional contexts. Its functionality will be showcased by applying it onto the educational contexts of PIETE partner institutions in Austria (PHT), Poland (UBB), and Hungary (USZ). The cases will be presented as separate reports in the respective national languages and English.

Access at the framework and the country case study reports here.

Does the concept of MBA, abbreviation for Master of Business Administration, pop in your head when you think about children education? Does this seem an impossible word clash between the adult and children’s worlds? Hardly so, as the widely-discussed need to introduce entrepreneurship education at an early age has sparked a genuine public interest in educating the future innovative thinkers and inspired a number of respective educational models, though branded with a generic label of “business education”. While it might appear that the “business education” concept for kids follows a narrow definition of entrepreneurship education – solely learning how to establish and run an enterprise – it is not quite so. Many business courses for young learners do not only teach them about the basics of economics and management, but address the development of a diverse range of soft skills needed to succeed in virtually any sphere of their lives, such as emotional intelligence, conflict resolution, creative thinking to name a few.

Momentarily, specialized entrepreneurial courses for children are rather scattered and in vast majority are extracurricular – while their popularity has reached some parents, it is yet to reach public school education curricula around the world. In this blog, we introduce you a number of privatized on-site and online schools and courses, which bring children of different ages a taste of entrepreneurship and attempt to popularize entrepreneurship education at schools with their tailored curricula.

Children Private Business Schools – MBAs for Kids around the world
“As a society we still rely on kids learning business stewardship through trial and error. It is hardly surprising that so many promising new businesses fail” – prof. Mark Warson-Gandy, Founder of KidsMBA School in the UK.
On a quest to uncovering the root causes of the high start-up fallacy rates among adults in the UK, Prof. Mark Warson-Gandy found himself among the early advocates of the need to imbue entrepreneurship within children’s natural learning curve. Through gamification and role playing divided in 3 tracks, the young future entrepreneurs learn business hard skills (e.g. business planning, financing, leadership, corporate responsibility, etc.) as well as transferable soft skills, leadership, communication, among others. The learning path offered by KidsMBA is rather flexible – from a Fast Track 2-days intensive course, to a semi-online course leading to a final exam and Star Performer Trophy – the formalized acknowledgement of completion of KidsMBA programme. Notably, KidsMBA offers a special entrepreneurship programme for schools, providing both the teacher and the students with the course curriculum and training materials.

The word play on “MBA” and “kids” has proven to be quite popular around the world, when a simple google keyword search will most probably return a number of seemingly similar programmes stemming from different initiatives. So much as to MBA Kids International, which is not to be confused with KidsMBA – similar learning goals encased in different modular systems. A large international franchise, currently running across 4 countries (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Azerbaijan) offers entrepreneurship education to children as early as 6 years old. This franchise’s educational provision and covered thematic areas are rather broad and comprehensive, generally divided according to levels (from beginner to advanced). Interestingly, the franchise’s programmes in different countries are somewhat contextualized to the local population’s needs and accessibility: for example, the Brazilian programmes introduce Entrepreneur 4.0 , shorter financial, time-management and leadership courses, while the schools in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have yearly courses of different levels tackling almost every skills from the entrepreneurship education textbooks. The school in Kazakhstan, however, shows its emphasis on communication and leadership skills development.

Another MBA Kids franchise example is based on the MatrixCareer business-education programme, originating from Russia, but spreading around Post-Soviet Union countries. With such modules as “Responsibility”, “Well, in the end, it does appear that “MBA Kid” concept has become a collective term for identifying corporate business schools for kids.
More examples of similar private schools and extracurricular centers that run on a global stage include MINIBOSS Business School and TeachingKidsBusiness. While serving as a useful extracurricular activity and a learning possibility for the students, those fee-based courses might not be fully accessible to some less-fortunate population groups. That is where the booming online education trends come to rescue.

Virtual Business Courses for Kids
Self-paced virtual business courses for kids allow parents, children and school teachers to access business school-like experiences and learning materials online from the comfort of their own home and on a reduced fee. While undeniably limited with a lack of the group work and interaction, the virtual children business education providers do tend to create an engaging learning environment for the kids through online mentors, online interactive audio group exercises, videos and games, etc.

FunFinanceAcademy is tailored for younger kids and offer introductory lessons not only into the world of business, but adulthood. While the name of the provider incorporates “finance academy”, the educational programmes do not only revolve around the talk about money. The online module “Business Basic”, for example, expands on the types and roles of businesses, highlights the stories from kidpreneurs (children entrepreneurs), and introduces social responsibility concepts and more. Another example, Kidpreneurs Academy – Entrepreneurship Course for Kids 7-12 by Udemy, the world’s largest online learning platform, incorporates the hand-on project approach to introduce the children to the world of entrepreneurship.

Unfortunately, the virtual business education for kids might, in many cases, be limited to basic introductions to the world of business and focus on gaining specific economic knowledge, rather than serve as a basis for developing transferable entrepreneurship skills. Without clear guidance from “real” mentor, lack of peer-learning and real-life experiences, the online learning paths can be a valuable addition to the child’s entrepreneurial learning path, but not the substitutes of a more structured and integrated hands-on approach at the educational institution.

What about the public schools?
While the above mentioned MBA for kids courses’ curricula are also offered to the schools, and the teachers can potentially incorporate the available online courses into their daily teaching, there are providers who tailor their courses exclusively for schools. Virtual Enterprises (VE) International, for example, “offers programmes that provide all students with authentic, collaborative, immersive business and entrepreneurial experiences”. In addition to creating the online (and offline) content for high schools, VE International collaborates with the businesses representatives to bring the real experiences on board. Another initiative in the US, Maker Kids Club, provides a set curriculum for teachers to run their own Kidpreneur club at their school.
To benefit from these initiatives, one will need to acquire the membership on an institutional or individual levels. Without a doubt, financial constraints as well as the lack of awareness of the practicing teachers about the advantages of early age entrepreneurship education limit the popularization of the courses at public schools. Our project aims to address the root of this issue by popularizing entrepreneurship education and creating the relevant open access resources for the aspiring teacher – hence the students in initial teacher education programme. We do hope that via addressing our future teachers, we can widen the access of the children to entrepreneurship education initiatives and help raise a new generation of entrepreneurs in Europe.
Learn more about the courses and initiatives mentioned in the blog:




Business Preparation Program™



Why VE?




In this blog article, our Hungarian partners from the University of Szeged delve into an analysis of the Hungarian National Core Curriculum, attempting to find out more about the interpretation of the “entrepreneurship competence as a skill” and the approaches to its integration into a wide multi-subject school curricula.

Shortly after the European Union proposed the nine key competences for lifelong learning in 2000, the Hungarian Educational Bodies have responded to the recommendation by integrating those competences into the National Core Curriculum (NCC). At present, the nine key competences including the sense of initiative and entrepreneurship are among the general educational goals of the core curriculum. Besides introducing the key competences, the NCC s lists several areas of development related to entrepreneurship: critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem solving, risk assessment, decision-making, and constructive management of feelings.

These areas have great significance in the development of sense of initiative and entrepreneurship as well. “Without content there is no knowledge, without knowledge there are no skills to use”. While commonly mentioned in relation to education, this statement is also appropriate in the case of entrepreneurship competences development. If entrepreneurship competence is viewed as a skill or an ability which helps children apply their knowledge in everyday life, then an important question arises. Is the school development of the competence achieved through everyday examples or lifelike situations? It is worth investigating the NCC and the framework curricula in view of the knowledge contents (e.g. lifelike topics are suggested to discussed) students should learn according to the documents. At what extents do the suggested knowledge contents and expected skills harmonize in the documents?

How does NCC define the terms?

The NCC defines entrepreneurship as the following:

“Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship helps an individual both in everyday life and at work to get to know his or her broader environment and to be able to grasp the opportunities that lie ahead. This competence comprises knowledge, creativity, propensity to induce changes and risk-taking as well as developing and implementing plans in order to achieve objectives. It serves as a basis for more specific knowledge and skills which are needed for the pursuit of economic activities.”

Necessary knowledge, on the one hand, involves recognizing and analyzing the opportunities and challenges for personal, professional and/or business activities, on the other hand, a broader understanding of how the economy and the world of money works. Individuals should also be conversant with the financial and legal conditions of businesses.

Skills and abilities such as planning, organizing, leading, managing, delegating, analyzing, communicating, evaluating experiences, as well as risk assessment and risk-taking, individual and team work are part of this competence.

A positive attitude is characterized by independence, creativity and innovation in personal and societal contexts, as much as at work. It is conditional upon motivation and determination to achieve goals, be they personal, shared or work-related goals or efforts.

The most salient aspect of the definition is that it considers the person being developed not as a child or a student. Rather, it regards him/her as an adult who already possesses the detailed knowledge, skills and attitudes based on the previously acquired knowledge. The necessary developmental steps to facilitate the skills development of the students are not detailed in the core curriculum (the necessary prior knowledge and the final requirements are absent).

Does NCC promote the integration of entrepreneurial skills development into all subject areas?

In the NCC the content related to entrepreneurship competence only appears in the case of two subject areas (f out of 11 subject areas): Way of life and practicing skills and Man and society. In the case of the former one the development of entrepreneurship competence appears as a general goal, while the latter one aims at teaching of entrepreneurial knowledge (where the document details this task only in two lines). Additionally, the analysis of the curriculum framework for secondary education reveals that entrepreneurship competence is not integrated into the subject areas. The need for the development of the entrepreneurship skills appears as a general educational goal along with the development of the other key competences. As an exception, the two school subjects’ curricula (ISCED 3), History and Geography, do mention the opics explicitly aiming at the development of entrepreneurship skills. However, those subjects are not well-developed in the grammar schools. The topics taught in grammar schools focus solely on macroeconomic processes. Transdisciplinary skills needed for the development of the entrepreneurial mindset are scarce. Only during the discussion of larger economic issues (e.g. financial and economic culture, global economic processes, place of Hungary in the Carpathian Basin and in Europe) students learn factual knowledge related to entrepreneurship and solely in factual fashion.

We can clearly see that the NCC and the curriculum framework consider the entrepreneurship competence and related skills development from the factual point of view. The curricula documents – especially the framework curriculum – only focus on rising the awareness of the students of the economic processes, and quite frankly, overlook the soft-skills development related to entrepreneurship. . The current curriculum documents do not provide enough information on how teachers can effectively enlist the attitudes needed for a successful entrepreneurial mindset development. There is still quite a way for a Hungarian formal education policy-making to interpret and promote the entrepreneurial skills development, specifically on the school level.

Provided by: University of Szeged

Today, we present you a new book from our partner institution – MCI Management Center Innsbruck edited by Andreas Altmann, Bernd Ebersberger, Claudia Mössenlechner and Desiree Wieser: “The Disruptive Power of Online Education. Challenges, Opportunities, Responses.

About the book

The higher education sector is being disrupted through the effect that technological innovations have on the educational market. As digital and mobile technologies are developing further, higher education institutions must embrace these developments to meet the needs of their learners and to not become irrelevant. In higher education, disruptive effects are mainly visible on a program/product level, with an increasing number of programs including some element of online education.
Disruptive effects also become evident on a pedagogical level, where student engagement, collaboration and social learning, gamification and serious games, competency-based learning, teacher training, and overcoming geosocial divides are high on the agenda. This book considers the effect of online elements and their design on university business models and internationalization, course design, massive open online courses (MOOCs), and the scalability of online programs. It also explores how higher education institutions across the globe respond and react to the challenges and opportunities evolving in online education.

Click here to find out more about the book, check its content, download sample chapter and purchase it.

Image credit: Emerald Publishing

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Today we host the opinion blog article by Anna Wieczorek, PhD, Assistant Professor at the Institute of Modern Languages and the Head of Academy of Corporate and Interpersonal Skills postgraduate studies at University of Bielsko-Biala. Anna shares her tips for the educators to help the graduates better prepare themselves for the arduous journey of starting their careers.

Diagnosis of the problem
The “job story” of many graduates and freshmen in the job market is usually a rise and fall story, with the advantage of downs at the initial stages. Sometimes it is even a big bang like, for instance, presenting a CV built on a lie and being caught red handed, or gossiping about your prospective employer while waiting for an interview and not being aware that he or she is in the room (a true story of one of my students!). If such a big bang gives rise to a more entrepreneurial professional life attitude, we may call it a success, in some cases, however, it is a wing-clipping experience and the youngsters are sorry that nobody told them what to do and not to do while taking first steps in professional life. The majority of study programmes don’t include courses that would help students to successfully apply for a job, there are, however, some ways of incorporating some “HR activities” into courses at the first glance unconnected with entrepreneurship. Here’s a bunch of my personal teacher tips that can serve as an inspiration for educators teaching various subjects.

Prevention of the problem:
1. While teaching a writing class, no matter, if it is an academic writing class, or a creative writing class, I try to incorporate cover letter writing where I also smuggle 🙂 CV writing, and I mainly focus on mistakes to avoid while preparing such documents and strategies to make it interesting and outstanding in a mass of other CVs. Then I’m looking for a few real job offers that they may find interesting and they are to prepare a CV and then, in a cover letter, stress only those abilities and skills (also soft skills) that they find relevant with relation to that given offer.
2. While teaching interpersonal or intercultural communication class, I don’t only focus on some theories of communication, Hofstede and his dimensions of culture, culture shock, etc, but try to role-play some real-life situations with the students, like, for instance, dealing with intercultural differences while applying for a job in a foreign country; answering difficult interview questions (at the same time we analyse the typical interview questions and try to come up with original answers which would make the recruitment officer remember them). We also discuss strategies of dealing with stress in interpersonal communication (for instance, while having an interview, or at work, in a team, etc.)
3. While teaching a public speaking class, we work with a camera, focus a lot on body language, dress codes, situational audience analysis and all these aspects are also crucial while the first encounter with your future boss. As an exam task, my students are asked to prepare a recording for a prospective employer – they are given a job offer and they are to analyse, who the employer might be and which qualifications and skills they may expect. Then they try to “sell” themselves – they are to present their real qualifications and personality traits and convince the employer that they are ideal candidates. Alternatively, they are asked to prepare a spot for prospective voters, assuming they candidate to a city council. Afterwards we watch the recording and they get feedback. At first they dislike the exercise, but later admit they find it really helpful.
These are mine most often used strategies to make my regular students more prepared for professional adulthood, what are your tips? We encourage you to share and think about your superpower in helping your students become more independent!

Provided by: University of Bielsko-Biala
Image credit: Pixabay via www.pexels.com

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From the 7th to the 8th of May, the University of Bielsko-Biala (UBB), southern Poland, opened its doors to the second consortium meeting of the PIETE project, welcoming the colleagues from Germany, Hungary, Austria, The Netherlands and fellow Polish University of Economics in Katowice (UEK). The meeting set the platform for the project representatives to share progress in their work regarding the first set of the project’s intellectual outputs, and discuss the arrangements of the Initial Teacher Education – Entrepreneurial Education experts’ tandems in Poland, Hungary and Austria.

The two-day program provided the participants with the opportunity to present their progress on the major agenda topics, specifically PIETE Awareness Test Center (IO1), which goal is to assess the awareness and conceptual understanding of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial education among initial teacher educators , and the Initial Teacher Education (ITE) Framework Report (IO2), which focusses on mapping the practices of the involved initial teacher education units. The presentations have led to productive discussions on the conceptual and practical design of the survey (IO1) and the report (IO2), their quality assessment methods and feedback.

PIETE Awareness Test Center (IO1)
The motivation for the creation of this output is rooted in the intention to better assess the prevailing understanding of entrepreneurial competences among ITE educators. In fact, ITE educators are mostly not aware of the wider scope of entrepreneurship education as laid out in EntreComp. As such, the purpose of entrepreneurship education (EE) is often still limited to activities that primarily aim to foster business creation. Consequently, ITE educators do not consider EE to be of much relevance for the teaching profession. However, this view disregards the wider scope of EE and results in an insufficient integration of the latter within ITE programmes. In the light of this, the PIETE Awareness Test Center provides means to:
– Assess EE conception of 10-15 ITE educators and level of EntreComp knowledgeability of each ITE partner within PIETE;
– Path the way for the creation of an empirical basis to better understand why EE does not play a prominent role in ITE yet;
– Implicitly sensitize pre-service teacher educators for the relevance of entrepreneurial competences and raise their awareness for the added-values of EntreComp for the teaching profession;
– Enable EE experts to better comprehend the rationale behind defined learning outcomes /competence assessment within ITE programmes;
– Adapt applied methods for assessment of competence conception to other relevant fields of higher education.
PIETE partners agree that the PIETE Awareness Test Center is a key preparatory element to unlock symbiotic potentials for the application of EntreComp within ITE at a later stage of the project. During the project meeting, the representatives of the lead partner of the PIETE project and the leader of this IO, Univations, presented the latest version of the survey, received feedback from the partners and discussed the survey internal and external pre-testing arrangements. Upon its finalization in upcoming months, the survey will be soon available as open resource.

ITE Framework Report (IO2)
To introduce methods, tools and concepts of EE to ITE requires a sound and comprehensive understanding of the professional environment ITE educators are involved in. With ITE Framework Report, the partners are developing a sound methodological framework that allows for a coherent mapping of the involved pre-service teacher training institution. To do so, it will also take into consideration the programmatic priorities of teacher training centers (TTCs) as not to disregard valuable input coming from the cultural and institutional diversity of the partners. As such the ITE Framework Report will be an innovative key instrument to:
– Create mutual understanding between ITE partners and EE partners within PIETE;
– Sensitise EE experts for ITE educator’s necessities and capacities;
– Activate ITE Educators as catalysts and advocates for EE inside TTCs;
– Identify relevant (institutional) barriers to the integration of EE content;
– Prepare a smooth integration of EntreComp based EE teaching modules into ITE;
– Exploit mutual learning potentials through exchange of experience between the TTCs of the partnership;
– Strengthen institutional back-up for PIETE objectives in the involved TTCs.

The representatives of the leader institution of this IO, University College of Teacher Education Tyrol, shared the approach to the report compilation, methodological framework and received valuable feedback for the implementation of the report framework within PIETE partner initial teacher education centers.

In addition to the talks about the IO1 and IO2, the partners have briefly discussed the future arrangements for the other outputs, workshops among the ITE and EE tandems in project countries, dissemination activities and administrative issues regarding the project implementation phase.

Overall, the meeting was a success in terms of its outcomes, supported by the generous hospitality of the host partners. The participants enjoyed the view of the region and Bielsko-Biala from above on a breathtaking observation platform after the first day of the meeting, followed by traditional Polish dishes and drinks during a dinner organized by the Polish project representatives.

The next partner meeting is planned to take place in Szeged, Hungary on 19-20 November, 2019.

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The so-called social capital (SC) builds the platform in every society for any innovative actions between people. Although the SC concept itself is rather a complex one when it comes to its multidimensionality and measurement (Fukuyama 1995; Scrivens and Smith 2013), this concept refers mainly to the level of trust between people in the society. Thus, the magnitude of social capital in a given society represents the extent to which people in this country treat themselves as reliable in their socio-economic roles, outside their family ties. In the absence of social capital, people do not expect other people would behave accordingly to the requirements they should fulfill as social actors. For example, when social capital is low, many people would not expect doctors of medicine to provide them with honest and high quality health advisory, but they would rather expect them to be driven by self-interest and opportunism in their interactions with patients. Similarly, in the educational context, students may have problems in relying on their teachers’ competencies, because they would again expect some other unethical and unprofessional motives driving their behaviour. One can easily imagine the difficulties created for entrepreneurs, while they try to launch and manage their businesses in such extreme context.

Unfortunately, the European Union is very diverse with regard to the level of social capital characterizing their member states. While Scandinavia is commonly known as the region with particularly high social capital, not only in EU but even in the worldwide context, there are also European regions, where social capital is low or even very low. Specifically, post-communist regions tend to exhibit low levels of SC, which concern Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and other Visegrad Countries, but it also refers to some regions in Germany that were a part of East Germany until the end of 80ties in 20th century. Of course, it does not mean that these are regions, where entrepreneurial spirit is absent. Actually, some of these post-communist economies develop dynamically, which is connected with many new companies established in these countries and more effective management of existing companies. While low social capital is visibly disturbing entrepreneurship in these regions, there are also some leverages like relatively cheap labour, effective education system and strong intrinsic motivation among people for improving their life conditions.

Nevertheless, while these regions have progressed enormously since they have switched towards market economies, the economic growth cannot be powered by economic efficiencies only. Further development is largely dependent on moving towards more innovation-based economies. In turn, innovations (especially radical ones) demand collaborative actions which is very visible in international supply chains, where most successful new products are developed as a result of collaborative product design, development and joint commercialization. If the level of social capital is low, the flow of knowledge between social actors may be not enough for boosting innovations, i.e. resulting in new brands recognizable on international scale. Stimulating entrepreneurship in such context may demand special approaches, because some traditional methods may not provide adequate means to do so. This creates the major challenge especially for education and institutions in these regions.

Fukuyama, Francis (1995), Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity (Free Press Paperbacks).
Scrivens, Katherine and Smith, Conal (2013), ‘Four interpretations of social capital: An agenda for measurement’, (OECD Publishing).

Provided by: UEK
Image credit: Skitterphoto via www.pexels.com

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In Hungary, prior to the regime change of 1989, there were almost no possibilities to start a private venture beside solely public employment, thus the private business sector was virtually missing in the country. As a consequence, there was hardly any trace of transferring modern marketing and management knowledge in higher education. Instead, business knowledge was transferred in the framework of the subject called Business Economics. It was present only in economics training; furthermore, it contained theories almost exclusively on large enterprises. Based on this we can conclude that we could not see even a sign of either the concept of entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship education in Hungary when western authors had already been conducting extensive research in the topic.

After the regime change, if it is possible to say that, the situation got even worse. Although it was allowed to start a business, but it resulted in a large number of enterprises established by people without either qualifications or knowledge in business. They were adventurers, much rather than business experts. However, as adventurers would normally do, they tried to exploit the opportunities, which were in abundance, as the new rule of law had several legally unregulated areas. In Hungary, the entrepreneurs of the 90s were characterised by rapidly making vast fortunes while circumventing legal frameworks. It meant that the social perception of “entrepreneur” was on the level of “maverick” and “mountebank”. At that time children used to say “My father does not have a job, he is just an entrepreneur”.

It all clearly shows that the education of entrepreneurship was an indefinable category in Hungary, since it was like wanting to teach “how to be the bad boy”. The first educational initiatives at university level can be found within the Faculties of Economics. However, it still was not called “entrepreneurship education”, but much rather “business development” (these two expressions sound similar in Hungarian, but have a slightly different meaning). In 2006, we can already find “Business Development” specialisations within economics courses. It is important to note that the education of Business Studies and Economics Studies are not separated in Hungary, the two areas are combined within the same training courses, and all of them equally give an “economist degree”.

Regarding the perception of the concept of entrepreneurship, the start-up ecosystem was the first to bring a substantially positive change in Hungary. By the 2010s, some globally successful Hungarian start-ups (e.g. Prezi.com) put the concept of entrepreneurship into a new perspective. Now it was no longer the dubious practices of “mavericks” but the creative activity of young, ambitious people. As the popularity of the start-up world grew rapidly, so did the interest increase among young people in related courses and knowledge. Entrepreneurship appeared first in the private sector, and then in tertiary education. Initially it was present only in Economics Faculties, and it has also gained ground in other fields – primarily in Engineering and Informatics – in the past years.

The PIETE project opens a gate to the next level of development in such environment. At this level we not only present the skills required for entrepreneurial life for today’s youth but we also provide the teachers of the future generation with such knowledge. The emergence of entrepreneurship in the Hungarian initial teacher education is a new chapter in the turbulently changing entrepreneurial history of the past 30 years. We hope that this chapter will be the first part of the success story of entrepreneurship.

Provided by: University of Szeged
Image credit: UIIN

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