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PIETE consortium is excited to share two new intellectual outputs of the project. These intellectual outputs are the first comers of the project, and in this light, we are thrilled to present you the results of the hard work accomplished by the project partners. These results include the PIETE Initial Teacher Education Methodological Framework and the PIETE Online Survey Instrument.

PIETE Initial Teacher Education Methodological Framework

PIETE Initial Teacher Education (ITE) methodological framework allows a coherent mapping of actors, artefacts and practices involved in the pre-service teacher training within education systems. Thus, the framework makes it possible to understand the functionality of Teacher Training Centers in terms of institutional circumstances, curricular focus and responsibilities of educators involved in ISCED 3-4 (Upper secondary education and post-secondary non-tertiary education) teacher development. It helps identifying areas in which elements of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – as understood under the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) – can be most efficiently integrated.

This framework aims to be easily applicable to different national or regional contexts. Its functionality will be showcased by applying it into the educational contexts of PIETE partner institutions in Austria, Poland, and Hungary. The cases will be presented as separate reports in the respective national languages and English.

PIETE Online Survey Instrument – Understanding of Entrepreneurship Education in Initial Teacher Education

PIETE Awareness Test Center (survey) provides the means to assess conceptual and terminological EE understanding of ITE educators. This knowledge is considered crucial for the overall aim of PIETE – foster EE within ITE. The survey will also serve as the main data collection instrument for PIETE Discussion Paper. You can access the survey in 4 languages (English, German, Polish and Hungarian) online on our website. The offline version is possible to get via contacting the PIETE project leader as well as the coordinator of this project output, Florian Bratzke (bratzke@univations.de).

Are you an initial teacher educator? We would love to hear from you! We already started collecting the data for our discussion paper, and would like to invite you to participate in the survey! Your data will be used for statistical purposes only and will remain anonymous. Please find the survey at www.entrepreneurialteachers.eu

To successfully integrate Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and entrepreneurial approaches into the daily teaching lives of initial teacher educators, we need to raise awareness about the potential of EE outside of business faculties, better understand the influencing factors and barriers for integrating the EE methodologies in Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes in our PIETE partner countries, and facilitate closer interaction between EE and ITE educators for peer-learning. We realised that to achieve this multifaceted goal, we need to physically bring together the representatives of both academic communities and undertake “tandem” workshops in PIETE partner countries: Austria, Hungary and Poland. We are delighted to report on the first results and insights from initial tandem interventions within our consortium.

AUSTRIA

During the latest PIETE workshop in Innsbruck, Austria, experts discussed the status quo of EE in ITE and reflected about the chances to integrate it more efficiently in the future. At the university-level in Austria, initiatives in the ambit of initial teacher education are surprisingly far less numerous, compared to the initiatives existing at the secondary school level. By now, only a few initiatives target EE in ITE directly, and most are offered across different educational levels, e.g. IFTE (Initiative for Teaching Entrepreneurship) and e.e.s.i. (Entrepreneurial Education for School Innovation). During the tandem workshop, we identified main issues and challenges, that hinder the integration of EE into ITE, while also discussing potential solutions to mitigate them.

Creating mutual understanding and structured pathway to implement EE

In practice, we observed a discrepancy between educators who feel that EE is important and already integrate it (often implicitly) into their classes, and educators who have difficulties to recognize the relevance of EE in general, and regarding specific disciplines or subjects taught. Educators are often also confused as they are not sure, which EE model or framework can serve best as the point of reference (EntreComp, OECD Learning Compass, etc.) for them, and for what they want to transmit to the students. Both, educators and entrepreneurship experts perceive that a mutual understanding of EE on the ITE level is absent, which hinders the integration of EE into ITE. Indeed, EE is not self-explanatory as often assumed, but many different perceptions and standpoints exist, depending on discipline, educational level, and individual opinions.

Hence, more flexibility and freedom in teaching and curriculum design are definitely needed in the first place, to pave the way for further EE initiatives. Moreover, experts suggest accompanying them with an efficient communication strategy for awareness raising. A concrete idea, which can be realized even without greater efforts, is e.g. the establishment of a digital platform for exchange (knowledge, information, contacts, resources, expertise etc.). However, to change attitudes nothing will be more rewarding than persuasion, courage and openness. To enfold, they need to be fostered on a constant basis throughout different levels and among several stakeholders.

Supporting both educators and the students in the process

On the student side, more support in terms of coaching and mentoring is suggested. EE should involve critical thinking with out-of-the-box thinking, whereby topics such as sustainability and innovation should move to the centre of the debate, as argued by experts. Students should be granted enough freedom to be creative, to develop and realize ideas. Eventually, competence development among students should also be tracked and measured. This will serve as an important signpost for attainment and future activity direction but also is required for the establishment and introduction of appropriate tools and indicators.

On the educator side, experts suggest the training and practicing of skills by making real-life experiences with entrepreneurship that can be transferred to the classroom afterwards. The sharing of best practice examples, as well as learning and teaching materials, didactics, or other resources is regarded equally effective. Workshop participants emphasized the availability of open source material to be useful to prepare educators. Also, PIETE has recognized this need and pursues with the development of a teaching compendium (project output nr.4), which serves as source of inspiration for educators and can be downloaded free of charge. Furthermore, capable educators should have or should be able to develop a kind of entrepreneurial spirit to recognize opportunities and ideas themselves, and to properly support students in their undertakings. At the same time, institutions will also be challenged to recruit educators with EE competences. This implies a reflection on the call and selection process of ITE educators. From a structural point of view, experts plead for an explicit designation of disciplinary and interdisciplinary entrepreneurship competences in the curricula, accompanied with a transparent operationalisation and visualization.

Recognition of entrepreneurial skills and self-identification potential

Finally, the key will be to find a consensus for all parties involved on how an entrepreneurial teacher is defined and what differentiates him/her from other teachers. The same applies at the student level. We must agree on how students, who got an entrepreneurship education, differ from students without EE. If we are able to work this out, we will also be able to efficiently integrate EE into ITE in Austria in the future.

Provided by: Desiree Wieser, MCI The Entrepreneurial School ® Innsbruck, Austria


HUNGARY

The lecturers from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration at the University of Szeged held tandem workshops in autumn 2019 to explore the lecturers’ experience and attitude about how their sense of initiative and entrepreneurship could be integrated into the teacher training programmes. The workshop was rounded up with the assessment and finalisation of the PIETE project’s questionnaire that will later be distributed among pre-service teachers in the Hungarian language. During the workshop, we were primarily interested in the questions on how Hungarian teacher training educators perceive entrepreneurship as a competence and whether some elements of Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) are being practiced within Initial teacher Education curricula unnoticed.

How do Hungarian teacher educators perceive “entrepreneurship competence”?

During the first workshop, the participants learned about the EntreComp and discussed how it is reflected in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum (HNCC). The HNCC features the term “sense of initiative and entrepreneurship” as a key competence, however, the name is slightly different from what is outlined in the EU recommendation on key competences for Lifelong Learning. A possible deviation can be reasoned with the fact that there is no direct translation of the term “entrepreneurship” to Hungarian. On top, at the beginning of the 1990s – in the period of the Hungarian regime change – the lay public attributed a negative meaning to entrepreneurship: it was associated with craft and tax avoidance.

The participants of the workshop got familiar with the elements of the EntreComp wheel. They pointed out that the entrepreneurship competence and its elements are naturally present in the personality of an efficient and responsible teacher. In their daily work, teachers directly and indirectly face situations and tasks which require activation of the entrepreneurship competence. For example, it is essential to set an objective and make plans. The review of the tasks, a teacher performs in their work, shows that they prepare a syllabus and thematic schemes at the beginning of an academic year and make lesson plans throughout the year. To advance their professional skills, they collaborate with the members of the faculty and the teachers’ staff committee, students, parents and colleagues teaching in partner institutions to fully develop students’ skills and competencies. Since each student has a unique set of these skills and competencies, teachers need a high degree of flexibility and creativity to motivate students and direct their attention what is not connected to the primary meaning of entrepreneurship but rather considered as soft skills of the EntreComp.

Is “entrepreneurship competence” being developed in Hungarian Initial Teacher Training programmes?

Considering the characteristics and specificities of the Hungarian initial teacher training, the workshop participants discussed several possibilities to implement the objectives of the PIETE project. They pointed out that several elements of entrepreneurship are already present in the Hungarian initial teacher training programs. For example, teacher students learn about the characteristics of the labour market, identify the fields where teachers can work (inside and outside the education system), and entrepreneurship as a way of life. Several courses include the analysis of pedagogical situations which also set the scene to assess self-efficacy. Students have a course called Educational Planning in which they learn about the general questions of planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. The courses include a module (Teachers’ roles and teaching as a profession) which covers the psychological questions of being a teacher and focuses on self-efficacy, as well as frustration related challenges. These courses are typically not about entrepreneurship de facto, however, they develop soft skills in close relation with the EntreComp. At the same time, there is also a possible way to get teacher candidates familiarised with entrepreneurship explicitly. For educators, who have been active for several years, shorter (5-8 lessons) or longer accredited (30-lesson), CPD programmes are the most suitable to put the elements of entrepreneurship competence into practice.

An online questionnaire, as part of the project, was drawn up and examined the teachers’ (1) attitude and (2) competences related to teaching entrepreneurship, as well as (3) the barriers of integrating entrepreneurship into teacher training. The participating teachers received a Hungarian version of the questionnaire to review it from a respondent’s perspective and indicate wherever the wording was accurate enough. The workshop revealed several differences between the terms of economics and educational science, however, the participants managed to achieve a final unanimous agreement.

Provided by: Szabolcs Pronay, University of Szeged

POLAND

The PIETE Tandem workshop was held at University of Bielsko-Biala on 29th October 2019. It was jointly organised by the University of Bielsko-Biala (UBB) and the University of Economics in Katowice (UEK). Total of 9 participants (4 from UB and 5 from UEK) gathered to discuss the term of entrepreneurship, EntreComp and set a foundation for future collaboration.

The term entrepreneurship was introduced and the participants were asked how they understand it and how to best translate it into Polish. Then EntreComp was briefly presented and the wheel was discussed. Some elements of the wheel were not directly associated by the participants with entrepreneurship/ entrepreneurship education. It was concluded that a discussion on the definition and role of entrepreneurship in professional life in general and especially in the teaching profession is absolutely necessary which indicates the relevance of the PIETE project.

The idea of the PIETE project was discussed and the main project-related issues were presented. The conclusion was that entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education elements should be a part of teaching courses not only for the sake of „producing” better teachers, but for the whole society that would be affected in a positive way (more entrepreneurial in professional and private life) if taught by teachers that are entrepreneurial in the broad sense that is presented in EntreComp.

After the general idea of the PIETE project was discussed, the main part of the workshop began – the workshop participants from UBB thoroughly discussed and presented the specificity of their job to the UEK workshop participants. The qualities of a good teacher and the requirements to become a teacher in Poland were elaborated on. UBB employees explained how those requirements influence their teaching and how they prepare ITE students to become teachers. The specificity of ITE in Poland was generally discussed and compared to some other European countries. Further, recent changes in the ITE curriculum were debated. Also, the current situation of teachers (financial and social status), expectations towards teachers and attitudes towards them were presented and there was an ongoing discussion about it, especially in view of the fact that recently teachers in Poland went on strikes. Potential ways of introducing entrepreneurship education into ITE programmes and anticipated problems (e.g lack of time to implement it and potential lack of ITE educators’ motivation to do it) and solutions (e.g. some incentives for ITE educators connected with introducing entrepreneurship education elements into ITE programmes) were discussed. Everyone agreed that introducing elements of entrepreneurship education into ITE programmes would be of enormous benefit for ITE educators, students and for the whole society in general as young teachers would educate new generations how to live more entrepreneurial life.

Provided by: Anna Wieczorek, University of Bielsko-Biala

The PIETE consortium welcomes the beginning of spring 2020 with a brand-new issue of the PIETE magazine, dedicated to exploring the concepts of entrepreneurship education for (aspiring and practicing) school teachers. Since our last publication, substantial progress has been made on the development of the project’s outputs and resources – please, stay tuned for the updates!

In the meantime, open this issue and dive into the exploration of the skills necessary for teachers to succeed in their work; get a glimpse of the entrepreneurship education examples in the context of initial teacher training as well as initiatives instilling entrepreneurial values among young learners around Europe. In the first section of the magazine, we invite you to get familiar with our results of the PIETE workshop series held in Austria, Hungary and Poland. Also, we are happy to share two new resources with you – PIETE Online Survey Instrument and PIETE Initial Teacher Education Methodological Framework. Further, our selection of the blog articles from the partners feature the examples of entrepreneurship education in Finland and Poland. We also offer you to discover an ample variety of entrepreneurship initiatives for kids and their teachers launched in Austria and Germany. Additionally, in this issue we introduce you to two books written for kids to understand complex economic issues but in a simple and engaging manner. On top, we will offer you insightful cases on developing and honing entrepreneurial skills offered to university students of different study areas in Germany and UK. The final section of the magazine brings you the selection of upcoming events that will welcome teachers and entrepreneurs in 2020, as well as the selection of recently released books on entrepreneurship education.

We hope the insights you will get after reading the recent issue will not only ignite your interest but provide you with some inspiration to integrate entrepreneurial skills development in your (maybe future) classroom!

We wish you a pleasant reading!

Download PIETE Magazine Issue 3 here

We are delighted to welcome Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic) to enter our consortium of dedicated PIETE collegues and enthusiasts as an associated partner!

We have been contacted by officials of Technical University of Ostrava already at the end of 2019 leading to first successful talks between representatives of either sides shortly afterwards. The Technical University of Ostrava (VSB-TUO) is a public institution of higher education which provides tertiary education in technical and economic sciences. It has a long tradition in high quality engineering with around 12.000 students and 800 pedagogue and cooperates with educational and research institutions worldwide. In addition and with relevance to PIETE, VSB-TUO is involved in the training and education of children in secondary and elementary schools, and at kindergartens both in the Czech Republic and abroad.

Given VSB-TUO efforts in supporting talented pupils, the PIETE consortium was glad to propose associate partnership to PIETE. VSB-TUO officials have equally expressed their interest to exchange best-practice experiences and intellectual resources to foster entrepreneurial aspirations and efforts of teacher trainers and aspiring teachers (primary target groups of PIETE). The collaboration has been manifested through signed Letter of Support allowing a further strengthening of ties between involved institutions in the months ahead.

Mutual benefits

Given the obvious high potentials to positively contribute to the success of the project, the PIETE consortium is strongly convinced of the mutual benefits that will result from this collaboration. In fact, both sides also decided to intensify talks in the upcoming months to identify further areas of collaboration within the upcoming Erasmus+ application round. Thus, apart from jointly discussing and piloting PIETE project outputs as well as exchange best-practices experiences, the collaboration with VSB-TUO may as well be the impetus to initiate new projects in the field of practical driven school teaching with relevance to entrepreneurship education involving all PIETE partnering institutions soon.

PIETE Awareness Test Center (survey) provides means to assess EE conception of ITE educators, with the end goal of raising their awareness for the added-values of EntreComp for the teaching profession.

The survey will serve as the main data collection instrument for PIETE Discussion Paper. You can already access the survey in 4 languages (English, German, Polisn and Hungarian) online at:

PIETE Awareness Test Center

If you would like to recieve an offline version of the survey in the above-mentioned languages, please contact the leader of the PIETE consortium and this intellectual output – Florian Bratzke at bratzke[at]univations.de

PIETE Initial Teacher Education (ITE) methodological framework allows a coherent mapping of actors, artefacts and practices involved in the pre-service teacher training within education systems. Thus, the framework makes it possible to understand the functionality of Teacher Training Centers (TTCs) in terms of institutional circumstances, curricular focus and responsibilities of educators involved in ISCED 3-4 (Upper secondary education and post-secondary non-tertiary education) teacher development. It helps identifying areas in which elements of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – as understood under the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) – can be most efficiently integrated.
The framework has two dimensions: On the one hand, it explains how Initial Teacher Education (ITE) work from a systemic perspective, on the other hand it asks where Entrepreneurship Education (EE) can be found within this perspective.

This framework aims to be easily applicable to different national or regional contexts. Its functionality will be showcased by applying it onto the educational contexts of PIETE partner institutions in Austria (PHT), Poland (UBB), and Hungary (USZ). The cases will be presented as separate reports in the respective national languages and English.

Access at the framework and the country case study reports here.

Does the concept of MBA, abbreviation for Master of Business Administration, pop in your head when you think about children education? Does this seem an impossible word clash between the adult and children’s worlds? Hardly so, as the widely-discussed need to introduce entrepreneurship education at an early age has sparked a genuine public interest in educating the future innovative thinkers and inspired a number of respective educational models, though branded with a generic label of “business education”. While it might appear that the “business education” concept for kids follows a narrow definition of entrepreneurship education – solely learning how to establish and run an enterprise – it is not quite so. Many business courses for young learners do not only teach them about the basics of economics and management, but address the development of a diverse range of soft skills needed to succeed in virtually any sphere of their lives, such as emotional intelligence, conflict resolution, creative thinking to name a few.

Momentarily, specialized entrepreneurial courses for children are rather scattered and in vast majority are extracurricular – while their popularity has reached some parents, it is yet to reach public school education curricula around the world. In this blog, we introduce you a number of privatized on-site and online schools and courses, which bring children of different ages a taste of entrepreneurship and attempt to popularize entrepreneurship education at schools with their tailored curricula.

Children Private Business Schools – MBAs for Kids around the world
“As a society we still rely on kids learning business stewardship through trial and error. It is hardly surprising that so many promising new businesses fail” – prof. Mark Warson-Gandy, Founder of KidsMBA School in the UK.
On a quest to uncovering the root causes of the high start-up fallacy rates among adults in the UK, Prof. Mark Warson-Gandy found himself among the early advocates of the need to imbue entrepreneurship within children’s natural learning curve. Through gamification and role playing divided in 3 tracks, the young future entrepreneurs learn business hard skills (e.g. business planning, financing, leadership, corporate responsibility, etc.) as well as transferable soft skills, leadership, communication, among others. The learning path offered by KidsMBA is rather flexible – from a Fast Track 2-days intensive course, to a semi-online course leading to a final exam and Star Performer Trophy – the formalized acknowledgement of completion of KidsMBA programme. Notably, KidsMBA offers a special entrepreneurship programme for schools, providing both the teacher and the students with the course curriculum and training materials.

The word play on “MBA” and “kids” has proven to be quite popular around the world, when a simple google keyword search will most probably return a number of seemingly similar programmes stemming from different initiatives. So much as to MBA Kids International, which is not to be confused with KidsMBA – similar learning goals encased in different modular systems. A large international franchise, currently running across 4 countries (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Azerbaijan) offers entrepreneurship education to children as early as 6 years old. This franchise’s educational provision and covered thematic areas are rather broad and comprehensive, generally divided according to levels (from beginner to advanced). Interestingly, the franchise’s programmes in different countries are somewhat contextualized to the local population’s needs and accessibility: for example, the Brazilian programmes introduce Entrepreneur 4.0 , shorter financial, time-management and leadership courses, while the schools in Ukraine and Azerbaijan have yearly courses of different levels tackling almost every skills from the entrepreneurship education textbooks. The school in Kazakhstan, however, shows its emphasis on communication and leadership skills development.

Another MBA Kids franchise example is based on the MatrixCareer business-education programme, originating from Russia, but spreading around Post-Soviet Union countries. With such modules as “Responsibility”, “Well, in the end, it does appear that “MBA Kid” concept has become a collective term for identifying corporate business schools for kids.
More examples of similar private schools and extracurricular centers that run on a global stage include MINIBOSS Business School and TeachingKidsBusiness. While serving as a useful extracurricular activity and a learning possibility for the students, those fee-based courses might not be fully accessible to some less-fortunate population groups. That is where the booming online education trends come to rescue.

Virtual Business Courses for Kids
Self-paced virtual business courses for kids allow parents, children and school teachers to access business school-like experiences and learning materials online from the comfort of their own home and on a reduced fee. While undeniably limited with a lack of the group work and interaction, the virtual children business education providers do tend to create an engaging learning environment for the kids through online mentors, online interactive audio group exercises, videos and games, etc.

FunFinanceAcademy is tailored for younger kids and offer introductory lessons not only into the world of business, but adulthood. While the name of the provider incorporates “finance academy”, the educational programmes do not only revolve around the talk about money. The online module “Business Basic”, for example, expands on the types and roles of businesses, highlights the stories from kidpreneurs (children entrepreneurs), and introduces social responsibility concepts and more. Another example, Kidpreneurs Academy – Entrepreneurship Course for Kids 7-12 by Udemy, the world’s largest online learning platform, incorporates the hand-on project approach to introduce the children to the world of entrepreneurship.

Unfortunately, the virtual business education for kids might, in many cases, be limited to basic introductions to the world of business and focus on gaining specific economic knowledge, rather than serve as a basis for developing transferable entrepreneurship skills. Without clear guidance from “real” mentor, lack of peer-learning and real-life experiences, the online learning paths can be a valuable addition to the child’s entrepreneurial learning path, but not the substitutes of a more structured and integrated hands-on approach at the educational institution.

What about the public schools?
While the above mentioned MBA for kids courses’ curricula are also offered to the schools, and the teachers can potentially incorporate the available online courses into their daily teaching, there are providers who tailor their courses exclusively for schools. Virtual Enterprises (VE) International, for example, “offers programmes that provide all students with authentic, collaborative, immersive business and entrepreneurial experiences”. In addition to creating the online (and offline) content for high schools, VE International collaborates with the businesses representatives to bring the real experiences on board. Another initiative in the US, Maker Kids Club, provides a set curriculum for teachers to run their own Kidpreneur club at their school.
To benefit from these initiatives, one will need to acquire the membership on an institutional or individual levels. Without a doubt, financial constraints as well as the lack of awareness of the practicing teachers about the advantages of early age entrepreneurship education limit the popularization of the courses at public schools. Our project aims to address the root of this issue by popularizing entrepreneurship education and creating the relevant open access resources for the aspiring teacher – hence the students in initial teacher education programme. We do hope that via addressing our future teachers, we can widen the access of the children to entrepreneurship education initiatives and help raise a new generation of entrepreneurs in Europe.
Learn more about the courses and initiatives mentioned in the blog:

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https://www.miniboss-school.biz/english/

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In this blog article, our Hungarian partners from the University of Szeged delve into an analysis of the Hungarian National Core Curriculum, attempting to find out more about the interpretation of the “entrepreneurship competence as a skill” and the approaches to its integration into a wide multi-subject school curricula.

Shortly after the European Union proposed the nine key competences for lifelong learning in 2000, the Hungarian Educational Bodies have responded to the recommendation by integrating those competences into the National Core Curriculum (NCC). At present, the nine key competences including the sense of initiative and entrepreneurship are among the general educational goals of the core curriculum. Besides introducing the key competences, the NCC s lists several areas of development related to entrepreneurship: critical thinking, creativity, initiative, problem solving, risk assessment, decision-making, and constructive management of feelings.

These areas have great significance in the development of sense of initiative and entrepreneurship as well. “Without content there is no knowledge, without knowledge there are no skills to use”. While commonly mentioned in relation to education, this statement is also appropriate in the case of entrepreneurship competences development. If entrepreneurship competence is viewed as a skill or an ability which helps children apply their knowledge in everyday life, then an important question arises. Is the school development of the competence achieved through everyday examples or lifelike situations? It is worth investigating the NCC and the framework curricula in view of the knowledge contents (e.g. lifelike topics are suggested to discussed) students should learn according to the documents. At what extents do the suggested knowledge contents and expected skills harmonize in the documents?

How does NCC define the terms?

The NCC defines entrepreneurship as the following:

“Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship helps an individual both in everyday life and at work to get to know his or her broader environment and to be able to grasp the opportunities that lie ahead. This competence comprises knowledge, creativity, propensity to induce changes and risk-taking as well as developing and implementing plans in order to achieve objectives. It serves as a basis for more specific knowledge and skills which are needed for the pursuit of economic activities.”

Necessary knowledge, on the one hand, involves recognizing and analyzing the opportunities and challenges for personal, professional and/or business activities, on the other hand, a broader understanding of how the economy and the world of money works. Individuals should also be conversant with the financial and legal conditions of businesses.

Skills and abilities such as planning, organizing, leading, managing, delegating, analyzing, communicating, evaluating experiences, as well as risk assessment and risk-taking, individual and team work are part of this competence.

A positive attitude is characterized by independence, creativity and innovation in personal and societal contexts, as much as at work. It is conditional upon motivation and determination to achieve goals, be they personal, shared or work-related goals or efforts.

The most salient aspect of the definition is that it considers the person being developed not as a child or a student. Rather, it regards him/her as an adult who already possesses the detailed knowledge, skills and attitudes based on the previously acquired knowledge. The necessary developmental steps to facilitate the skills development of the students are not detailed in the core curriculum (the necessary prior knowledge and the final requirements are absent).

Does NCC promote the integration of entrepreneurial skills development into all subject areas?

In the NCC the content related to entrepreneurship competence only appears in the case of two subject areas (f out of 11 subject areas): Way of life and practicing skills and Man and society. In the case of the former one the development of entrepreneurship competence appears as a general goal, while the latter one aims at teaching of entrepreneurial knowledge (where the document details this task only in two lines). Additionally, the analysis of the curriculum framework for secondary education reveals that entrepreneurship competence is not integrated into the subject areas. The need for the development of the entrepreneurship skills appears as a general educational goal along with the development of the other key competences. As an exception, the two school subjects’ curricula (ISCED 3), History and Geography, do mention the opics explicitly aiming at the development of entrepreneurship skills. However, those subjects are not well-developed in the grammar schools. The topics taught in grammar schools focus solely on macroeconomic processes. Transdisciplinary skills needed for the development of the entrepreneurial mindset are scarce. Only during the discussion of larger economic issues (e.g. financial and economic culture, global economic processes, place of Hungary in the Carpathian Basin and in Europe) students learn factual knowledge related to entrepreneurship and solely in factual fashion.

We can clearly see that the NCC and the curriculum framework consider the entrepreneurship competence and related skills development from the factual point of view. The curricula documents – especially the framework curriculum – only focus on rising the awareness of the students of the economic processes, and quite frankly, overlook the soft-skills development related to entrepreneurship. . The current curriculum documents do not provide enough information on how teachers can effectively enlist the attitudes needed for a successful entrepreneurial mindset development. There is still quite a way for a Hungarian formal education policy-making to interpret and promote the entrepreneurial skills development, specifically on the school level.

Provided by: University of Szeged

Today, we present you a new book from our partner institution – MCI Management Center Innsbruck edited by Andreas Altmann, Bernd Ebersberger, Claudia Mössenlechner and Desiree Wieser: “The Disruptive Power of Online Education. Challenges, Opportunities, Responses.

About the book

The higher education sector is being disrupted through the effect that technological innovations have on the educational market. As digital and mobile technologies are developing further, higher education institutions must embrace these developments to meet the needs of their learners and to not become irrelevant. In higher education, disruptive effects are mainly visible on a program/product level, with an increasing number of programs including some element of online education.
Disruptive effects also become evident on a pedagogical level, where student engagement, collaboration and social learning, gamification and serious games, competency-based learning, teacher training, and overcoming geosocial divides are high on the agenda. This book considers the effect of online elements and their design on university business models and internationalization, course design, massive open online courses (MOOCs), and the scalability of online programs. It also explores how higher education institutions across the globe respond and react to the challenges and opportunities evolving in online education.

Click here to find out more about the book, check its content, download sample chapter and purchase it.

Image credit: Emerald Publishing

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Today we host the opinion blog article by Anna Wieczorek, PhD, Assistant Professor at the Institute of Modern Languages and the Head of Academy of Corporate and Interpersonal Skills postgraduate studies at University of Bielsko-Biala. Anna shares her tips for the educators to help the graduates better prepare themselves for the arduous journey of starting their careers.

Diagnosis of the problem
The “job story” of many graduates and freshmen in the job market is usually a rise and fall story, with the advantage of downs at the initial stages. Sometimes it is even a big bang like, for instance, presenting a CV built on a lie and being caught red handed, or gossiping about your prospective employer while waiting for an interview and not being aware that he or she is in the room (a true story of one of my students!). If such a big bang gives rise to a more entrepreneurial professional life attitude, we may call it a success, in some cases, however, it is a wing-clipping experience and the youngsters are sorry that nobody told them what to do and not to do while taking first steps in professional life. The majority of study programmes don’t include courses that would help students to successfully apply for a job, there are, however, some ways of incorporating some “HR activities” into courses at the first glance unconnected with entrepreneurship. Here’s a bunch of my personal teacher tips that can serve as an inspiration for educators teaching various subjects.

Prevention of the problem:
1. While teaching a writing class, no matter, if it is an academic writing class, or a creative writing class, I try to incorporate cover letter writing where I also smuggle 🙂 CV writing, and I mainly focus on mistakes to avoid while preparing such documents and strategies to make it interesting and outstanding in a mass of other CVs. Then I’m looking for a few real job offers that they may find interesting and they are to prepare a CV and then, in a cover letter, stress only those abilities and skills (also soft skills) that they find relevant with relation to that given offer.
2. While teaching interpersonal or intercultural communication class, I don’t only focus on some theories of communication, Hofstede and his dimensions of culture, culture shock, etc, but try to role-play some real-life situations with the students, like, for instance, dealing with intercultural differences while applying for a job in a foreign country; answering difficult interview questions (at the same time we analyse the typical interview questions and try to come up with original answers which would make the recruitment officer remember them). We also discuss strategies of dealing with stress in interpersonal communication (for instance, while having an interview, or at work, in a team, etc.)
3. While teaching a public speaking class, we work with a camera, focus a lot on body language, dress codes, situational audience analysis and all these aspects are also crucial while the first encounter with your future boss. As an exam task, my students are asked to prepare a recording for a prospective employer – they are given a job offer and they are to analyse, who the employer might be and which qualifications and skills they may expect. Then they try to “sell” themselves – they are to present their real qualifications and personality traits and convince the employer that they are ideal candidates. Alternatively, they are asked to prepare a spot for prospective voters, assuming they candidate to a city council. Afterwards we watch the recording and they get feedback. At first they dislike the exercise, but later admit they find it really helpful.
These are mine most often used strategies to make my regular students more prepared for professional adulthood, what are your tips? We encourage you to share and think about your superpower in helping your students become more independent!

Provided by: University of Bielsko-Biala
Image credit: Pixabay via www.pexels.com

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