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The PIETE project will produce a number of outputs which will be of use to those working in initial teacher education, specifically with regards to entrepreneurship education. These resources are open for all to use. In 2020, despite the challenges that were faced during times of COVID-19, PIETE made great progress and produced quality outputs. Here we will outline the achievements of 2020,

Magazines
In April and September 2020 two magazines were released highlighting entrepreneurship education initiatives across Europe. In these issues you can find a summary of the PIETE workshop that took place in Innsbruck, Austria; recommended books for school children related to entrepreneurship skills, and information on how to become an entrepreneurial school in Austria. These are just a few examples of the contents of our most recent biannual magazines

Initial Teacher Education Framework Report
The framework provides a basis to understand the functionality of Teacher Training Center (TTCs) in terms of institutional circumstances, curricular focus, and responsibilities of educators involved in ISCED 3-4 teacher development. It also allows the identification of areas in which elements of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – as understood under the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) – can be most efficiently and suitably integrated.

Entrepreneurship Education Capacity Building Compilation
This document seeks to provide practical guidance to institutions that also interested in “opening the doors” for entrepreneurship education within ITE. A practical and hands-on guidebook, it provides support to initial teacher education (ITE) institutions which consider the fostering of entrepreneurship competences development as an important educational asset. The European Commission’s EntreComp Framework is described; concepts that may serve as hands-on tools for organising awareness-raising workshops are outlined; and examples of workshops that were implemented by the PIETE consortium in Hungary, Austria, and Poland are summarised.

PIETE Teaching Compendium
By now, only a few teaching resources from the field of EE are explicitly designated for use within ITE programmes within the European higher education institution landscape. Thus, the PIETE Teaching Compendium presents a rather novel form of support for educators in ITE programmes. This output develops, tests and compares innovative teaching methodologies (i.e. multidisciplinary curricula, learner-centered, real problem based, etc.) that can be used to enhance entrepreneurial competence and mind-set development within higher education pre-service teacher development programs.

PIETE Videos
Six of our partners give insights into the PIETE project itself, its outcomes and its relevance and importance for teachers and students. The videos can be found on the PIETE website homepage. After watching these videos you will have a greater understanding of the project and why it is important.You will also get to see some of the partners and learn more about their roles in the project.

Since 2011 it is possible for schools in Austria to be certified as an Entrepreneurship School. What is the general idea behind it and how does the process work?

Based on the priorities set by the European Union, both the Austrian Ministry of Education and the Education Directorates see Entrepreneurship Education (EE) as a particularly important component of good school education. This priority is highlighted in a certificate, which aims to make the certified school more attractive, confirms its holistic approach of Entrepreneurship activities as well as their goal-oriented and long-term implementation in everyday school life. Currently 61 schools are certified, 23 schools are in the process of being certified.

The certification serves as a measure to ensure and increase the quality of EE, which is already anchored as a general educational goal in the curricula of all vocational schools. It confirms that in the school concerned, entrepreneurship activities are implemented systematically on all levels from students to teachers to parents to companies, from classroom management to school leadership. If EE is to be sustainable, it must be integrated in the school development process and be supported and lived by all those involved. Young people should be supported in becoming innovative, sustainable and critical entrepreneurs as well as intrapreneurs. Consequently, measures to promote entrepreneurial thinking are as much an integral part of the everyday life of an Entrepreneurship School as the steady drive for personality development and education to become a responsible citizen.

Before a school decides on certification, a survey of the status quo (e.g. school culture, attitudes, authenticity) must be conducted. It is essential for a successful implementation and certification that the majority of the teachers and the school management are behind the certification. Appropriate training events should ensure that the teachers are familiarized with the principles of EE. Finally, the school formulates the goals of the certification, specifies concrete implementation measures and defines responsibilities. An entrepreneurship steering group will be set up, consisting of teachers from the various departments and actively involving the school management. The team must include a business teacher and a general educator.

The certification of an entire school usually takes a year or more and includes criteria from the following areas:

A. Activities at the school
B. Basics for teachers
C. Organizational framework
D. Additional freely selectable optional criteria

Mandatory criteria from area A – Basic Level:
– Organization of an Entrepreneurship Day
– Exploration of a company or organization
– Participation in an external competition for business ideas
– Extracurricular study groups (initiated by teachers)
– Presentation of EE measures at the open-door day
– Training Firm/Junior Company
– Commitment to sustainability, based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
– Use of challenges from the YouthStart program (www.youthstart.eu)
– Working with digital tools

Mandatory criteria from area A – Advanced Level:
– Activities with reference to the Global Entrepreneurship Week (in November)
– Extracurricular study groups (initiated by students)
– Debating Club
– External additional qualifications of the students

Mandatory criteria from area B – Basic level:
– Basic training on the topic of EE
– Attendance of relevant seminars on the subject of EE
– Program for directors
– Internal school cooperation of those responsible for EE

Mandatory criteria from area B – Advanced Level:
– Teamwork of teachers
– Advanced training on the topic of EE
– Working with entrepreneurs

Mandatory criteria from area C – Basic Level:
– school mission statement
– website
– Documentation of entrepreneurship activities and successes
– Social media presence
– Involvement of student representatives

Mandatory criteria from area C – Advanced Level:
– Involvement of parents
– Public Relations
– Networking with graduates of the school

A complete list with detailed description of the criteria, their objectives and evidence is available from the responsible bodies (www.eesi-impulszentrum.at).

Authored by: Mario Vötsch, University College of Teacher Education Tyrol

Even though education in general is seen as one of the major catalysers of regional entrepreneurial potential, entrepreneurship education is largely undertaken in the selected programs and institutions associated with management and business development. Many Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programs in Europe, however, lack entrepreneurial competence development.
What if ITE decisionmakers open up their minds, looking a little bit more outside the box, and start to transfer what has proven to be successful in other higher educational contexts? The MCI – The Entrepreneurial School® – can serve as a prime example.

As the Entrepreneurial School ®, MCI is the first point of contact for numerous entrepreneurs and company founders for all questions concerning entrepreneurship. MCI supports students, graduates, employees, and partner organizations in their entrepreneurial activities and promotes the development of the skills required by successful entrepreneurs. Thereby it aims to provide comprehensive teaching of entrepreneurial skills.
At MCI, all study programs include a differentiated number of theoretical and practical courses in the field of entrepreneurship in their curricula, with two Master’s programs that are explicitly devoted to entrepreneurship. Curricula are supplemented with practical projects, international study trips, company excursions, symposia, workshops, and boot camps to foster entrepreneurship competence development.

Next to this, MCI offers extra-curricular education in the field of Entrepreneurship & Start-up. Within MCI’s executive education, courses and seminars are offered to sharpen the entrepreneurial spirit regularly. Moreover, with the digital badge program, the MCI starts off as a pioneer by awarding digital badges in the field of Entrepreneurship and Start-up Management. Digital badges are digital certificates for skills acquired outside the regular studies. During this program, students go through a series of interesting seminars, workshops, courses, and learning experiences within one year (e.g. identification of hidden entrepreneurs, collecting practical experience in a start-up, participation in a business plan competition, pitch training, etc.).

Furthermore, MCI regularly organizes lecture and discussion events that facilitate entrepreneurship topics and sensitize students to specific entrepreneurial issues (e.g. female entrepreneurship, etc.). Of particular relevance is the annual MCI Creativity Award, where students from all study programs (including incoming students) have the chance to demonstrate their entrepreneurial ideas. A jury of independent experts from various fields evaluates all ideas and the best ideas are awarded prizes.
Individual consulting and coaching sessions can be arranged with internal or external experts when students, employees, graduates but also partner organizations and companies need advice in entrepreneurship. Doing so, in cooperation with the major players in the Tyrolean entrepreneurship ecosystem, the MCI has successfully contributed to the establishment of numerous start-ups and spin-offs in recent years.

In the sense of a sustainable exchange of knowledge, research in the field of entrepreneurship is strongly promoted at the MCI and includes 1) Entrepreneurship Education, 2) Family Businesses Management, and 3) Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Marketing.

Although the aim of ITE is not to develop company founders – of course, entrepreneurial skills might be equally important for future teachers. While typical entrepreneurial founders develop new or enhanced products or services, prospective teachers are even challenged to develop edu-cated humans. Let’s be true, if that is not entrepreneurial, then what is?

Now the question is what can we learn from MCI’s approach and what can be transferred to the initial teacher education (ITE) context?
First, higher education institutions that offer ITE programs should recognize the importance of entrepreneurial skills for future teachers. The embracement of an entrepreneurial mindset at the school and institutional level is a first step in the right direction.
Second, instead of providing stand-alone and encapsulated courses in entrepreneurship a multi-disciplinary and cross-curricular approach should be the preferred way to foster entrepreneurial competence development. This can be done either by enriching existing courses and lectures with some entrepreneurial elements or by offering elective over-curricular courses to raise awareness about specific entrepreneurial issues.

Furthermore, ITE institutions should engage within the regional and national entrepreneurship eco-system and build up a fruitful network for a steady exchange. Institutional and in particular cross-institutional events and workshops can be very efficient here. They can be organized to sensitize students for entrepreneurship education, helping them to overcome inhibitions and prejudices about the topic. Even a business plan competition might be great to do so. The business plan competition can easily be transformed into a curriculum competition (e.g. designing the best curriculum) or a didactics competition (e.g. best lecturer) for a better fit to the ITE context.

Thinking outside the box, spin-offs might also be an interesting option for institutions in the ITE context. Spin-offs are not only limited to technological innovations, even more so they might path the way for innovative ideas and novel educational concepts! Also, research in the field of entrepreneurship education might help to expand horizons and enrich the quality of teaching and learning substantially, therefore is should not be neglected either.

Ultimately, however, it is not a matter of working through this list and implementing everything on bend and break. The aim is rather to provide food for thought and inspiration. If we want the next generation to have more entrepreneurial qualities, then educational institutions in particular should set a good example. And if they try just one thing on this list, they too have put their entrepreneurial potential to the test, leading by example.

Authored by: Desiree Wieser, MCI

Finland has been topping multiple rankings for many years in a row. When it comes to school education, the country attracted a huge interest around its successful results in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in 2000. It came first among 32 OECD countries in reading, third in science and fourth in maths, and has been hovering around the top countries since then. Here the success can be attributed to many things: timely policy shifts, teaching methodologies, etc. But one success ingredient of the recipe is undeniable – teachers with well-rounded skills and sound knowledge of their subject.

As the European Union sees entrepreneurial skills an integral factor contributing to the creation of welfare, the inclusion of entrepreneurship courses into the Finnish university curriculum for teachers doesn’t seem to be odd. University of Turku (further UT) is one of the first universities in Finland that made entrepreneurship training modules for pre-service teachers compulsory. Up till now, the entrepreneurship modules are offered to teacher students both as obligatory and elective courses. This year, UT offers a renewed 3-ECTS elective Enterprise Education in Basic Education that will allow students to embark on an exciting journey of entrepreneurial self-discovery.

Teaching + entrepreneurship: compatible?

According to Jaana Lepistö, Adjunct Professor at UT whose expertise revolves around Entrepreneurship and Craft Education, with the course Enterprise Education in Basic Education they are trying to achieve three main goals. First, students will unearth possibilities of applying operating methods based on entrepreneurship to teaching in basic education. They will see how entrepreneurial pedagogy can find its way and may be implemented in their teaching work in comprehensive schools. Second, teacher students will be structurally guided through the corpus of national and international research on entrepreneurial education so that they can form a pedagogical idea of how to put it into practice. And third, the elective course will allow students to explore entrepreneurship from different perspectives and see how they can engage in cooperation with various societal stakeholders and make use of them in their teaching.

What’s in the pack?

The elective course Enterprise Education in Basic Education has been modified several times during its existence to stay relevant to the demands of the modern school system as well as address its future challenges. Currently, the course comprises, but is not limited to, the following topics:
– entrepreneurial education terminology;
– basics of entrepreneurial pedagogy;
– methods of operation related to entrepreneurial pedagogy in comprehensive education;
– entrepreneurship as a social phenomenon;
– active participation and inclusion as part of the teaching work;
– school as a community and co-operation;
– development of the school organisation and school activities and societal challenges;
– contacts with parties outside of the school.

Modes of study

As many other courses, this elective includes a variety of lectures delivered by both the responsible course lecturer and external experts from the field. The course also suggests ten hours of group studies, six of which are school visits. During these visits, teacher students observe the implementation of entrepreneurship concepts in the classroom by their more experienced colleagues. However, a fair share of the course is required to be done individually. Like true entrepreneurs, UT teacher students submerge into the exploratory search of their own unique possible application of entrepreneurial skills. So far, this elective has been offered only in the Finnish language.

Though already being a highly prestigious professional field in Finland, teaching occupation keeps evolving into new phases what allows fully-fledged teacher graduates to safely experiment in classrooms with new methodologies.

Coming up with innovative ideas, solving problems creatively, acting independently, convincing others, working in teams, having fun in performance: developing entrepreneurial skills is important for young people and a pre-requisite to get along in todays’ as much as in the future world of work. However, how does one manage to integrate Entrepreneurship Education at schools? How can the power of developing an entrepreneurial mindset become accessible and tangible for pupils?

In fact, most schools in Saxony-Anhalt struggle to provide in-house learning opportunities that allow pupils to gather entrepreneurial experiences. To make up for the latter, a network of distinct entrepreneurship education initiatives in Saxony-Anhalt (namely Unternehmergeist macht Schule) offers schools professional support. Through their educational offers pupils get a chance and support for the development of business models, the production of prototypes as well as the practical implementation of business ideas by establishing real student companies (Schülerfirmen). Additionally, they act as intermediaries between schools and companies from the regional business eco-system to support early career orientation as much as to ensure practical relevance of early start-up efforts. Here is an overview of present initiatives and their operational focus within the state of Saxony-Anhalt:

futurego Sachsen-Anhalt

In the pupil competition futurego Sachsen-Anhalt, pupils develop a business idea right up to the finished business concept and illustrate it with the help of a prototype and video. In workshops and individual coaching the necessary knowledge is imparted. Each competition cycle lasts one school year and can be both – integrated into the lessons at school but also be carried out by pupils during their spare time.

Website: www.futurego.de
Contact: Sandra Bier / Univations GmbH

Junior

For more than 20 years IW JUNIOR gGmbH has been helping pupils to found their own companies. In addition, they offer student-friendly materials, comprehensive advice, supervision and assurance of pupil companies, organize national and international events and provide contacts to schools and companies throughout Europe.

Website: www.junior-programme.de
Contact: Corinna Brandt / IW JUNIOR gGmbH

Junggründerzentrum Sachsen-Anhalt 2.0

The student institute SITI e. V. (registered association) in Havelberg has many years of experience in promoting pupil companies with their own products. The Junggründerzentrum (youth founder centre) makes these experiences available to interested pupil companies in Saxony-Anhalt in central training courses or individual coaching sessions. Thus, the networking of pupil companies of different schools is to be made possible by common products.

Website: www.jgz.siti.de
Contact: Dr.-Ing. Hannes König /Schüler-Institut SITI e.V.

Jugend gründet

The aim of the nationwide online competition “Jugend gründet” (Youth founds) is to inspire pupils and apprentices for the topics of innovation and start-up. The task is to develop an innovative business idea, to complete an online business plan and to prove in a high-quality business simulation through sustainable entrepreneurial activity in the ups and downs of the economy.

Website: www.jugend-gruendet.de
Contact: Marius Kunkis / Steinbeis-Innovationszentrum Unternehmensentwicklung an der Hochschule Pforzheim (SIZUE)

Ego. Sommerakademie

The “ego.- on tour” initiative addresses secondary school pupils who want to learn more about starting a business and entrepreneurship in general. This is done through one-day workshops at schools. At the end of the workshop day, participants get the chance to qualify ego.- Summer Academy at Harz University of Applied Sciences where specific entrepreneurial knowledge is deepened through the co-creational workshop formats and planning games in 3 consecutive days.

Website: ego.hs-harz.de
Contact: Benedikt Kisser / Hochschule Harz

Gründerkids

The project GRÜNDERKIDS (founder kids) advises and qualifies pupils and teachers from Saxony-Anhalt on their way to launch a (pupil-)company. Also, the Gründerkids team supports running pupil-companies with (business) training, company meetings, individual guidance in corporate governance issues. Moreover, Gründerkids strengthens country-wide networking among pupil companies as well as with stakeholders from the regional economy.

Website: www.gründerkids.de
Contact: Claudia Köhler / Gemeinnützige Deutsche Kinder- und Jugendstiftung GmbH

By collaborating in the joint network “Unternehmergeist macht Schule”, the activity range and distinct features of each of the available entrepreneurship education initiatives in the state can be well coordinated. What is more, the catalogue of existing offers can be well assessed by teachers, principals and pupils, as the networks online presence presents fundamental information about each initiative. Operationally, the participating initiatives exploit the network to regularly discuss how entrepreneurship education offers, incl. continuous professional development for teachers, can be improved for schools. After all, the dynamic environment educational institutions are exposed to in today’s rapidly changing world also need to be considered in the entrepreneurship education offers of any external provider.

There are various action plans, strategies and initiatives in Austria which promote Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and encourage its integration on different levels. One highly engaged network is the Initiative for Teaching Entrepreneurship (IFTE) which is mainly active in the sector of Initial Teacher Education. It supports EE on the level of teacher training by organizing events, workshops, seminars and summer schools. Here is an overview of some IFTE activities.

Summer school in Kitzbühel

The goal of the summer school is to present tools for teachers to teach entrepreneurial competences. A focus is placed on learning through experience so that the course offers a lot of insights from entrepreneurs and professionals. The European Commission has awarded the summer school Best practice in the area of EE.

Teachers in Economy

It is a practical training for teachers (in-service as well as pre-service ones) who get an opportunity to visit corporations and firms for 3 days and thus become an active part. In the programme, the teachers focus on understanding economic issues by experiencing managerial and operational perspectives within business processes. The training involves several companies and is a valuable tool to develop mutual understanding between educators and business professionals. Finally, teachers can apply their insights by translating them into didactical methods.

Entrepreneurship Educator of the Year

This award annually certifies the performance of a single teacher in the area of EE. It focuses on innovative teaching arrangements, possible methods to promote EE as well as on personal engagement of a teacher.

Youth Start

This program is developed by the Federal Ministries of Education from Austria, Luxembourg, Portugal and Slovenia. The aim of the program is to develop an innovative, flexible, transferable and scalable entrepreneurship program. IFTE is the Austrian program partner and responsible for the methodological framework as well as teaching and learning materials.

Changemaker

The Changemaker program is developed by IFTE and aimed at students at upper secondary school. It supports committed young people in implementing innovative project ideas for the Sustainable Development Goals. They receive support in the development of their projects from mentors, via workshops and diverse forms of funding.

Global Entrepreneurship Week & Entrepreneurship Summit

Global Entrepreneurship Week promotes around 15,000 events worldwide each year. Seven million people from 115 countries participate in the event. In Austria, IFTE is one of the organizers and host. The Entrepreneurship Summit is a one-day conference and as such rounds up the Global Entrepreneurship Week.

In Poland, entrepreneurship education is part of secondary school syllabus. In many cases, due to the fact that there are not many hours devoted to it, this subject is taught by teachers who teach other subjects on a regular basis and who not always have sufficient knowledge concerning entrepreneurship-related issues. They, of course, need to attend some courses, but many of them feel it is not enough to make them understand what entrepreneurship competence is about and how to teach it. A few years ago, the National Bank of Poland in cooperation with four universities, undertook a curious initiative. Each of the four universities (University of Economics in Katowice, University of Economics in Poznań, SGH Warsaw School of Economics and the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin) offered very cheap post-graduate studies for up to 50 in-service and pre-service teachers. At University of Economics 47 people enrolled and all of them graduated from the studies. The studies were in 88% financed by the National Bank of Poland (12% – by the students). The four higher education institutions formed a consortium and jointly prepared the study programme built on their experience with relation to general knowledge referring to entrepreneurship-related issues and methodology of teaching it. The nearly free opportunity and the study programme prepared by experts were obvious advantages over other programmes of similar studies. Thanks to the project, that was part of economic education programme, 180 teachers of other subject areas were given an opportunity to become entrepreneurship teachers as well.

About the studies

The studies comprised three semesters (300 contact hours) and the following topics were covered: company organisation, the role of state in the economy, planning one’s career and shaping pro-entrepreneurial attitudes of people, methodology of entrepreneurship teaching, etc. As it can be seen, the aspects elaborated during the studies concerned broad contemporary understanding of entrepreneurship competence. Furthermore, teaching methodology, the very subject of entrepreneurship education, was also taught and the students then had to test their newly gained knowledge in practice, during their internship.
After graduation, newly trained and re-trained teachers were eligible to teach a secondary school subject: basics of entrepreneurship. What is more, the mindset of many of them changed as they started understanding the notion of entrepreneurship in broader terms. This way, not only while entrepreneurship teaching, bit also while teaching their first subject, they transfer some pro-active attitudes to younger generations. After the free edition of studies finished, some of the involved universities decided to offer commercial studies based on the programme that still gives the same opportunity for new teachers.

Dr. Bartłomiej J. Gabryś as entrepreneurship education promoter

At University of Economics in Katowice, prof. Wojciech Dyduch and dr. Bartłomiej J. Gabryś were the initiators of the studies. Dr. Bartłomiej J. Gabryś was a co-author of the programme in the consortium. He works at Entrepreneurship Department, participated in domestic and global scientific projects (i.e. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project) and presents his research at prestigious conferences in Europe, Asia and America. He supports business people with his knowledge, especially with relation to developing their own business, organising it and motivating employees. The most important area of his activities in view of the objectives of PIETE project is, however, spreading entrepreneurship-related knowledge among youngsters. He organises workshops for young people at university and he also visits schools in the Silesian region where he talks about entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial and pro-active life attitudes. He co-organises Entrepreneurship Education Contest that is a big event focusing attention of several thousands of young people every year and he is a member of the Association of Children’s Economic Universities where he encourages the economic development of children from early years. Dr. Gabryś is also a politician interested in developing the Silesian region and local business environment.

PIETE consortium is excited to share two new intellectual outputs of the project. These intellectual outputs are the first comers of the project, and in this light, we are thrilled to present you the results of the hard work accomplished by the project partners. These results include the PIETE Initial Teacher Education Methodological Framework and the PIETE Online Survey Instrument.

PIETE Initial Teacher Education Methodological Framework

PIETE Initial Teacher Education (ITE) methodological framework allows a coherent mapping of actors, artefacts and practices involved in the pre-service teacher training within education systems. Thus, the framework makes it possible to understand the functionality of Teacher Training Centers in terms of institutional circumstances, curricular focus and responsibilities of educators involved in ISCED 3-4 (Upper secondary education and post-secondary non-tertiary education) teacher development. It helps identifying areas in which elements of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – as understood under the European Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) – can be most efficiently integrated.

This framework aims to be easily applicable to different national or regional contexts. Its functionality will be showcased by applying it into the educational contexts of PIETE partner institutions in Austria, Poland, and Hungary. The cases will be presented as separate reports in the respective national languages and English.

PIETE Online Survey Instrument – Understanding of Entrepreneurship Education in Initial Teacher Education

PIETE Awareness Test Center (survey) provides the means to assess conceptual and terminological EE understanding of ITE educators. This knowledge is considered crucial for the overall aim of PIETE – foster EE within ITE. The survey will also serve as the main data collection instrument for PIETE Discussion Paper. You can access the survey in 4 languages (English, German, Polish and Hungarian) online on our website. The offline version is possible to get via contacting the PIETE project leader as well as the coordinator of this project output, Florian Bratzke (bratzke@univations.de).

Are you an initial teacher educator? We would love to hear from you! We already started collecting the data for our discussion paper, and would like to invite you to participate in the survey! Your data will be used for statistical purposes only and will remain anonymous. Please find the survey at www.entrepreneurialteachers.eu

To successfully integrate Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and entrepreneurial approaches into the daily teaching lives of initial teacher educators, we need to raise awareness about the potential of EE outside of business faculties, better understand the influencing factors and barriers for integrating the EE methodologies in Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes in our PIETE partner countries, and facilitate closer interaction between EE and ITE educators for peer-learning. We realised that to achieve this multifaceted goal, we need to physically bring together the representatives of both academic communities and undertake “tandem” workshops in PIETE partner countries: Austria, Hungary and Poland. We are delighted to report on the first results and insights from initial tandem interventions within our consortium.

AUSTRIA

During the latest PIETE workshop in Innsbruck, Austria, experts discussed the status quo of EE in ITE and reflected about the chances to integrate it more efficiently in the future. At the university-level in Austria, initiatives in the ambit of initial teacher education are surprisingly far less numerous, compared to the initiatives existing at the secondary school level. By now, only a few initiatives target EE in ITE directly, and most are offered across different educational levels, e.g. IFTE (Initiative for Teaching Entrepreneurship) and e.e.s.i. (Entrepreneurial Education for School Innovation). During the tandem workshop, we identified main issues and challenges, that hinder the integration of EE into ITE, while also discussing potential solutions to mitigate them.

Creating mutual understanding and structured pathway to implement EE

In practice, we observed a discrepancy between educators who feel that EE is important and already integrate it (often implicitly) into their classes, and educators who have difficulties to recognize the relevance of EE in general, and regarding specific disciplines or subjects taught. Educators are often also confused as they are not sure, which EE model or framework can serve best as the point of reference (EntreComp, OECD Learning Compass, etc.) for them, and for what they want to transmit to the students. Both, educators and entrepreneurship experts perceive that a mutual understanding of EE on the ITE level is absent, which hinders the integration of EE into ITE. Indeed, EE is not self-explanatory as often assumed, but many different perceptions and standpoints exist, depending on discipline, educational level, and individual opinions.

Hence, more flexibility and freedom in teaching and curriculum design are definitely needed in the first place, to pave the way for further EE initiatives. Moreover, experts suggest accompanying them with an efficient communication strategy for awareness raising. A concrete idea, which can be realized even without greater efforts, is e.g. the establishment of a digital platform for exchange (knowledge, information, contacts, resources, expertise etc.). However, to change attitudes nothing will be more rewarding than persuasion, courage and openness. To enfold, they need to be fostered on a constant basis throughout different levels and among several stakeholders.

Supporting both educators and the students in the process

On the student side, more support in terms of coaching and mentoring is suggested. EE should involve critical thinking with out-of-the-box thinking, whereby topics such as sustainability and innovation should move to the centre of the debate, as argued by experts. Students should be granted enough freedom to be creative, to develop and realize ideas. Eventually, competence development among students should also be tracked and measured. This will serve as an important signpost for attainment and future activity direction but also is required for the establishment and introduction of appropriate tools and indicators.

On the educator side, experts suggest the training and practicing of skills by making real-life experiences with entrepreneurship that can be transferred to the classroom afterwards. The sharing of best practice examples, as well as learning and teaching materials, didactics, or other resources is regarded equally effective. Workshop participants emphasized the availability of open source material to be useful to prepare educators. Also, PIETE has recognized this need and pursues with the development of a teaching compendium (project output nr.4), which serves as source of inspiration for educators and can be downloaded free of charge. Furthermore, capable educators should have or should be able to develop a kind of entrepreneurial spirit to recognize opportunities and ideas themselves, and to properly support students in their undertakings. At the same time, institutions will also be challenged to recruit educators with EE competences. This implies a reflection on the call and selection process of ITE educators. From a structural point of view, experts plead for an explicit designation of disciplinary and interdisciplinary entrepreneurship competences in the curricula, accompanied with a transparent operationalisation and visualization.

Recognition of entrepreneurial skills and self-identification potential

Finally, the key will be to find a consensus for all parties involved on how an entrepreneurial teacher is defined and what differentiates him/her from other teachers. The same applies at the student level. We must agree on how students, who got an entrepreneurship education, differ from students without EE. If we are able to work this out, we will also be able to efficiently integrate EE into ITE in Austria in the future.

Provided by: Desiree Wieser, MCI The Entrepreneurial School ® Innsbruck, Austria


HUNGARY

The lecturers from the Institute of Education and the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration at the University of Szeged held tandem workshops in autumn 2019 to explore the lecturers’ experience and attitude about how their sense of initiative and entrepreneurship could be integrated into the teacher training programmes. The workshop was rounded up with the assessment and finalisation of the PIETE project’s questionnaire that will later be distributed among pre-service teachers in the Hungarian language. During the workshop, we were primarily interested in the questions on how Hungarian teacher training educators perceive entrepreneurship as a competence and whether some elements of Entrepreneurship Competence Framework (EntreComp) are being practiced within Initial teacher Education curricula unnoticed.

How do Hungarian teacher educators perceive “entrepreneurship competence”?

During the first workshop, the participants learned about the EntreComp and discussed how it is reflected in the Hungarian National Core Curriculum (HNCC). The HNCC features the term “sense of initiative and entrepreneurship” as a key competence, however, the name is slightly different from what is outlined in the EU recommendation on key competences for Lifelong Learning. A possible deviation can be reasoned with the fact that there is no direct translation of the term “entrepreneurship” to Hungarian. On top, at the beginning of the 1990s – in the period of the Hungarian regime change – the lay public attributed a negative meaning to entrepreneurship: it was associated with craft and tax avoidance.

The participants of the workshop got familiar with the elements of the EntreComp wheel. They pointed out that the entrepreneurship competence and its elements are naturally present in the personality of an efficient and responsible teacher. In their daily work, teachers directly and indirectly face situations and tasks which require activation of the entrepreneurship competence. For example, it is essential to set an objective and make plans. The review of the tasks, a teacher performs in their work, shows that they prepare a syllabus and thematic schemes at the beginning of an academic year and make lesson plans throughout the year. To advance their professional skills, they collaborate with the members of the faculty and the teachers’ staff committee, students, parents and colleagues teaching in partner institutions to fully develop students’ skills and competencies. Since each student has a unique set of these skills and competencies, teachers need a high degree of flexibility and creativity to motivate students and direct their attention what is not connected to the primary meaning of entrepreneurship but rather considered as soft skills of the EntreComp.

Is “entrepreneurship competence” being developed in Hungarian Initial Teacher Training programmes?

Considering the characteristics and specificities of the Hungarian initial teacher training, the workshop participants discussed several possibilities to implement the objectives of the PIETE project. They pointed out that several elements of entrepreneurship are already present in the Hungarian initial teacher training programs. For example, teacher students learn about the characteristics of the labour market, identify the fields where teachers can work (inside and outside the education system), and entrepreneurship as a way of life. Several courses include the analysis of pedagogical situations which also set the scene to assess self-efficacy. Students have a course called Educational Planning in which they learn about the general questions of planning, management, monitoring and evaluation. The courses include a module (Teachers’ roles and teaching as a profession) which covers the psychological questions of being a teacher and focuses on self-efficacy, as well as frustration related challenges. These courses are typically not about entrepreneurship de facto, however, they develop soft skills in close relation with the EntreComp. At the same time, there is also a possible way to get teacher candidates familiarised with entrepreneurship explicitly. For educators, who have been active for several years, shorter (5-8 lessons) or longer accredited (30-lesson), CPD programmes are the most suitable to put the elements of entrepreneurship competence into practice.

An online questionnaire, as part of the project, was drawn up and examined the teachers’ (1) attitude and (2) competences related to teaching entrepreneurship, as well as (3) the barriers of integrating entrepreneurship into teacher training. The participating teachers received a Hungarian version of the questionnaire to review it from a respondent’s perspective and indicate wherever the wording was accurate enough. The workshop revealed several differences between the terms of economics and educational science, however, the participants managed to achieve a final unanimous agreement.

Provided by: Szabolcs Pronay, University of Szeged

POLAND

The PIETE Tandem workshop was held at University of Bielsko-Biala on 29th October 2019. It was jointly organised by the University of Bielsko-Biala (UBB) and the University of Economics in Katowice (UEK). Total of 9 participants (4 from UB and 5 from UEK) gathered to discuss the term of entrepreneurship, EntreComp and set a foundation for future collaboration.

The term entrepreneurship was introduced and the participants were asked how they understand it and how to best translate it into Polish. Then EntreComp was briefly presented and the wheel was discussed. Some elements of the wheel were not directly associated by the participants with entrepreneurship/ entrepreneurship education. It was concluded that a discussion on the definition and role of entrepreneurship in professional life in general and especially in the teaching profession is absolutely necessary which indicates the relevance of the PIETE project.

The idea of the PIETE project was discussed and the main project-related issues were presented. The conclusion was that entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education elements should be a part of teaching courses not only for the sake of „producing” better teachers, but for the whole society that would be affected in a positive way (more entrepreneurial in professional and private life) if taught by teachers that are entrepreneurial in the broad sense that is presented in EntreComp.

After the general idea of the PIETE project was discussed, the main part of the workshop began – the workshop participants from UBB thoroughly discussed and presented the specificity of their job to the UEK workshop participants. The qualities of a good teacher and the requirements to become a teacher in Poland were elaborated on. UBB employees explained how those requirements influence their teaching and how they prepare ITE students to become teachers. The specificity of ITE in Poland was generally discussed and compared to some other European countries. Further, recent changes in the ITE curriculum were debated. Also, the current situation of teachers (financial and social status), expectations towards teachers and attitudes towards them were presented and there was an ongoing discussion about it, especially in view of the fact that recently teachers in Poland went on strikes. Potential ways of introducing entrepreneurship education into ITE programmes and anticipated problems (e.g lack of time to implement it and potential lack of ITE educators’ motivation to do it) and solutions (e.g. some incentives for ITE educators connected with introducing entrepreneurship education elements into ITE programmes) were discussed. Everyone agreed that introducing elements of entrepreneurship education into ITE programmes would be of enormous benefit for ITE educators, students and for the whole society in general as young teachers would educate new generations how to live more entrepreneurial life.

Provided by: Anna Wieczorek, University of Bielsko-Biala

The PIETE consortium welcomes the beginning of spring 2020 with a brand-new issue of the PIETE magazine, dedicated to exploring the concepts of entrepreneurship education for (aspiring and practicing) school teachers. Since our last publication, substantial progress has been made on the development of the project’s outputs and resources – please, stay tuned for the updates!

In the meantime, open this issue and dive into the exploration of the skills necessary for teachers to succeed in their work; get a glimpse of the entrepreneurship education examples in the context of initial teacher training as well as initiatives instilling entrepreneurial values among young learners around Europe. In the first section of the magazine, we invite you to get familiar with our results of the PIETE workshop series held in Austria, Hungary and Poland. Also, we are happy to share two new resources with you – PIETE Online Survey Instrument and PIETE Initial Teacher Education Methodological Framework. Further, our selection of the blog articles from the partners feature the examples of entrepreneurship education in Finland and Poland. We also offer you to discover an ample variety of entrepreneurship initiatives for kids and their teachers launched in Austria and Germany. Additionally, in this issue we introduce you to two books written for kids to understand complex economic issues but in a simple and engaging manner. On top, we will offer you insightful cases on developing and honing entrepreneurial skills offered to university students of different study areas in Germany and UK. The final section of the magazine brings you the selection of upcoming events that will welcome teachers and entrepreneurs in 2020, as well as the selection of recently released books on entrepreneurship education.

We hope the insights you will get after reading the recent issue will not only ignite your interest but provide you with some inspiration to integrate entrepreneurial skills development in your (maybe future) classroom!

We wish you a pleasant reading!

Download PIETE Magazine Issue 3 here